This interesting surname with variant spelling "Newhall" and "Newall", has three possible sources. It may be a topographical name for someone who lived at a "new hall", or an occupational name form someone who worked in one, from the Old English words "Neowe", new, and "heall", hall. Thirdly, it may be locational from "Newhall", a township in both Cheshire and Yorkshire. Thus the name is most widespread in both of these counties. The name is first recorded in the late 12th Century. Early recordings of the name include John de Newhalle who is mentioned in the "Pardons Roll of Cambridge", in 1383, and Hugo de Neuhalle, entered in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire" in 1379. At the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, Susan Newell was christened on March 12th 1551. In 1630, one Richard Newall was recorded in the "Chester Wills". One Robert Newell married Ann Collier at St. Nicholan, Rochester on December 19th 1656. On September 16th 1657, at St. Alphage ,Greenwich one Thomas, son of John Newell was christened. Robert Stirling Newall (1812-1889) was an engineer and astronomer, who invented wire-ropes in 1840, and was also responsible for laying submarine telegraph cables. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Niewehal, which was dated 1195, Pipe Rolls of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Richard 1, "Richard the Lionheart", 1189 - 1199. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.