This surname is of early medieval English origin, and is an interesting example of that sizeable group of early European surnames that were gradually created from the habitual use of nicknames. These nicknames were given with reference to a variety of personal characteristics, such as physical attributes or peculiarities, mental and moral characteristics, or to habits of dress and occupation. The derivation, in this instance, is from the Middle English "trew(e)", faithful, steadfast, from the Olde English pre 7th century "treowe", with "man", man; hence, "true, trustworthy or faithful man", perhaps the soubriquet of some herald or messenger. Trueman was also apparently used as a given name during the Middle Ages, and some instances of the surname may derive from this use. One Thomas Treweman was noted in the 1273 Hundred Rolls of Worcestershire, and a William Trueman appears in the 1279 Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire. In the modern idiom the name is spelt: Trueman, Turman, Trewman and Tro(w)man, all forms being most widespread in the West Midlands, especially in Staffordshire. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Treweman, which was dated circa 1215, in the "Cartulary of the Priory of St. Gregory", Kent, during the reign of King John, known as "Lackland", 1199 - 1216. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.